glauca) with the possibility that they are linked. Kin recognition, mycorrhizal networks, or the combination of the two may be important mechanisms for enhanced seedling establishment in these regions. She discovered that trees use complex, symbiotic underground networks to communicate and share resources, uprooting the idea that nature constantly competes for survival. Mycorrhizal networks and carbon transfer occurred within all greenhouse seedling pairs, and enhanced mycorrhization of kin suggests network colonization was involved in kin selection, but our data does not strongly support our hypothesis that kin recognition was facilitated by mycorrhizal networks. This study is a long-term analysis of two field experiments established in 1992 in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada, where I sought to gain insight into the outcomes and mechanisms of interspecific interactions in mixtures of broadleaves and conifers. This benefit was consistent across densities and regardless of climatic stress, pointing to a pattern of constant benefits of belowground interactions for subordinate tree species. I found no evidence of C transfer between seedlings through growth chamber ¹³CO₂ labeling, but D₂O labeling and natural abundance H₂¹⁸O measurements are suggestive of increasing water transfer from donor to receiver seedlings as receiver water deficiency increased.View record, Anthropogenic climate change threatens the stability of Arctic C stores. We used DNA metabarcoding targeting the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) marker and the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to decipher the microbiomes. I also found that at the highest density class, there were no differences in juvenile radial growth between the two neighbor strata. Transfer was determined by measuring δ¹³C and δ¹³N in tissues (needle, stem, root) of kin and stranger seedlings. Suzanne Simard University of British Columbia. UBC Faculty of Forestry. This model was then incorporated into SORTIE-ND as a new juvenile growth behavior, “Juvenile NCI Growth”, and used to test whether juvenile or mature trees have a greater competitive influence on juvenile subalpine fir growth under three basal area classes. Nurse-logs contain physical, chemical and biological features that make them the most suitable seedbed for hemlock in old-growth forests. Suzanne Simard est professeure d'écologie forestière et enseigne à l'Université de la Colombie-Britannique.. Elle est biologiste et a testé des théories sur la manière dont les arbres communiquent entre eux. These fungi help trees acquire nutrients and water from the soil in exchange for carbon. firstname.lastname@example.org. Gaps of 20 – 80 m² were too small to initiate gap-phase regeneration, however, as indicated by low seed emergence and slow height growth rates. TerreWEB was established in 2011 after a group of UBC scientists led by Dr. Suzanne Simard received a six-year NSERC CREATE (Collaborative Research and Training Experience) funding with a goal to incorporate state-of-the-art communications with natural and social science research. The Simard Lab is run by Suzanne Simard. Mycorrhizal networks (MNs) arise when the same fungus is connected to multiple plants, allowing for interplant resource transfer and impacting ecosystem functions. Photo : Radio-Canada / Camille Vernet email@example.com. The SEM indicated that mean annual precipitation (MAP) negatively influenced fire severity; mean annual temperature (MAT) positively influenced fire severity and soil nutrients; and MAP and MAT directly and/or indirectly influenced most PFTs. Prof. Suzanne Simard shares her story and why she's so passionate about forestry. View Suzanne Simard's business profile as Professor (Tenure) at The University of British Columbia. In the second experiment, where the climate was cooler and wetter, seedling survival reached 74% in harvested gaps that were 80 – 300 m² in area, corresponding with greater soil moisture availability. This last result may be due in part to the comparatively weak status of the planted paper birch, which never overcame early poor performance. She can be heard giving talks for TED and Radiolab. In addition, one of her strengths is communicating her work to a broader audience. Social-Ecological Systems Research Group The Environmental Social Sciences (ESS) span a range of disciplines (e.g. In three studies regarding kin relationships of year-old seedlings, evidence supporting kin recognition via differences in morphological traits and kin selection via differences in performance between kin and stranger seedlings was provided. She used radioactive carbon to measure the flow and sharing of carbon between individual trees and species, and discovered that birch and Douglas fir share carbon. ), ISBN: 978-953-307-144-2 Teste FP, Simard SW, Durall DM, Guy R, Berch SM (2010). As a consequence, trait-based plant ecology, which has mostly focused on above-ground traits, is increasingly placing the emphasis below-ground.To improve our functional understanding of fine roots, we first quantified root morphological, chemical and architectural trait variation in interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. Simard’s research focuses on plant-soil microbial interactions, forest stand dynamics, forest disturbances and the effects of climate change on these processes. Suzanne Simard, Professor of Forestry at the University of British Columbia, is an expert in the synergies and complexities of forests and the development of sustainable forest stewardship practices. Repeated measurements (% cover and height) of vascular plants were collected between 1981 and 2008 (1, 2, 3, 5, 10 and 20 years after clearcutting and slashburning) in permanent research installations. Taken as a whole, these results illustrate the possible benefits of maintaining broadleaves in commercially valuable conifer plantations, both in terms of direct health benefits to conifers, and in the broader sense of providing negative feedback mechanisms to species loss and ecosystem instability.View record, Insight into influences on successful seedling establishment could be essential to future regeneration of British Columbia’s interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. Étudier la forêt, c'est une histoire de famille chez les Simard. She can be heard giving talks for TED and Radiolab. Suzanne Simard is a professor of forest ecology and teaches at the University of British Columbia.. She is a biologist and has tested theories about how trees communicate with other trees. I found that western hemlock successful recruitment was associated with the presence of medium to advanced decay classes of CWD. There was high similarity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to those found in western redcedar among the dominant plant species colonizing CH clearcuts, including the ericoid plant Gaultheria shallon and in Blechnum spicant growing sparsely in HA clearcuts. She completed a PhD with Suzanne Simard in November 2019, after completing a Master of Science under her supervision in the fall of 2013. Strong correlations between foliar Na and ¹³C or growth increment suggest foliar N per unit area is the simplest integration of light availability and N nutrition on leaf photosynthetic activity. An information source that gives journalists access to UBC's expertise. Cited by. Dr Simard is an excellent prof - encouraging, inspirational, knows what she's talking about, has interesting stories, and very importantly: she wants to see students succeed. genets spanned tens of metres and colonized up to 19 trees, but R. vesiculosus genets were larger and linked more trees than R. vinicolor genets. She obtained Registered Professional Forester Status in 1986. Dr Simard is an excellent prof - encouraging, inspirational, knows what she's talking about, has interesting stories, and very importantly: she wants to see students succeed. The study objective was to determine the impact of wildfire and clearcutting severity on Douglas-fir regeneration potential in the Interior Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zone. My research suggests that clearcutting and slashburning do not alone alter the diversity or function of mesic ESSF, SBS and ICH forests; however, past and future anthropogenic disturbances combined with non-historical climate and interrelated edaphic factors may place long-term stability of these ecosystems at risk.View record, Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Professor. The B horizon of stumped plots was significantly enriched with potential plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR), such as rhizobia. At the forest stand scale, Rhizopogon spp. She holds a PhD and MSc in Forest Ecology from Oregon State University and a BSF in Forest Resource Management from UBC. Our study clarifies ectomycorrhizal taxonomic and functional responses to environmental factors but warrants further research to broaden root trait frameworks and evaluate the role of mycorrhizal fungi in mediating ecosystem responses to environmental changes. is a widely distributed western North American conifer that can grow under a wide range of light environments, initial densities and site qualities. Professor. It can be a major component of stands found within the Thompson Dry Mild variant of the Montane Spruce ecological zone (MSdm2) in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada. Tropical Forestry and Food Security. Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z4. Her 30 years of research in Canadian forests have led to an astounding discovery -- trees talk, often and over vast distances. The treatments were replicated across three geographically distinct sites within the same BEC subzone (ICHmw). Positive interactions can come in the shape of intraspecific interactions such as kin selection, or interspecific interactions, such a mycorrhizal symbiosis. These results have implications for sustainable forest management practices, including retention of legacy trees and plants with timber harvesting and inoculation of seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi at the time of planting.View record, How resilience is understood and measured has become increasingly challenging for ecologists, particularly as terrestrial ecosystems are undergoing radical change as climate changes. Experiments have demonstrated movement of carbon and nitrogen between Douglas-fir and neighboring plants in response to source-sink dynamics, seasonality, and differences in age of linked plants. The simplification of the ectomycorrhizal community did not negatively affect seedling growth or survival. You can find all of our episodes here. The film centres around the groundbreaking scientific discoveries that Suzanne Simard has been making in the Canadian Wilderness since the 1990s and that seem to be valid for all natural forests around the world! Overall, survival was greatest for these seedlings relative to those from the wet or dry provenances, but decreased with summer heat:moisture index more rapidly. In late 2015 NSERC announced that this SPG, led by Suzanne Simard, was selected for funding in the themes of ‘Natural Resources’ and ‘Optimizing Resource Extraction, Harvesting and Renewal’. We found temperature, precipitation and soil C:N ratio affected ectomycorrhizal community similarities and exploration type abundance but had no effect on fungal richness and diversity. Individual species sensitive to the forestry treatment (recorded exclusively pre-burn) included Rhododendron albiflorum, Menziesia ferruginea and Prosartes hookeri in the ICH; Rubus pedatus in the SBS; and Orthilia secunda, Listera cordata and Moneses uniflora in the ESSF. ubc.ca. Students are expected to These exploratory results suggest positive potential for action-based plant-oriented digital games in the higher education classrooms. TED Radio Hour featured UBC forestry professor Suzanne Simard for her research in tree communications. Research Highlights. This is a small sample of students and/or alumni that have been supervised by this researcher. The mechanisms by which the struggling paper birch interacted with interior Douglas-fir were revealed in the trenching experiment, where ability to form mycorrhizal networks resulted in cumulative benefits to paper birch over time, with significantly less growth loss in untrenched than trenched treatments. UBC Foresty Professor Suzanne Simard is a forest ecologist whose research focuses on how organisms living in soil – like fungi – help trees establish and grow. Nutt.) In both experiments, I tested the effects of canopy gap size and access to mycorrhizal networks on seedling performance (establishment, growth, water use efficiency, foliar nutrition, mycorrhizal colonization) and environmental resources and conditions (light, temperature, soil moisture). Patricia Westerford—whose work resembles that of UBC’s Suzanne Simard—is a shy introvert who discovers that trees communicate, learn, trade goods and services, and have intelligence. In chapter 2 of this dissertation, I examined the effects of light, moisture, nutrients and neighbor density on juvenile subalpine fir growth. No MN structural differences were found between phytocentric and mycocentric models or between xeric versus mesic plots. Suzanne Simard, PhD, RPF, is Professor of Forest Ecology, Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Canada. Access to mycorrhizal networks had minor effects on mycorrhizal colonization and water use efficiency. Last updated: October 1, 2020 @12:30 pm Suzanne Simard University of British Columbia. Few studies have investigated belowground dynamics related to western hemlock growing on decayed wood, specifically ectomycorrhizal (EM) associations and the potential access to a mycorrhizal network (MN). She's been among my favourite professors since starting at UBC. This body of work proposes a specific approach to studying resilience and applied it to Interior Cedar-Hemlock (ICH), Sub-Boreal Spruce (SBS) and Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir (ESSF) forests extending across central British Columbia, Canada. There she teaches courses in forest and soil ecology, and complex adaptive systems. It’s not just nutrient flows that Simard describes. Suzanne Simard is a Professor at the UBC Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences and the leader of The Mother Tree Project. The MNs appear robust to random perturbations but susceptible to the loss of large trees or fungal genets. Website simardlab.forestry.ubc.ca. Regeneration of western hemlock under a closed canopy it is tightly associated with coarse woody debris (CWD). In the first experiment, regeneration failed in all canopy gap sizes and network treatments due to the harsh climatic conditions. Listen to episode ten below, and make sure to subscribe wherever you get your podcasts. Seedlings in the high severity burn had significantly greater shoot height, biomass, and foliar N and P content than those in the clearcut treatments. SIMARD, Suzanne. This together with size asymmetries among different genets and trees resulted in the self-organization of complex, hierarchical scale-free MN architectures. Year; Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field. Cited by. I conclude that western hemlock regeneration on nurse-logs is facilitated by mycorrhizal networks of canopy trees in an old-growth forest of coastal British Columbia.View record, There is growing concern about the long term productivity of forests in British Columbia due to changing climatic conditions. Variable retention harvesting and natural regeneration from residual trees, for example, may become increasingly important for their locally adaptive traits as climate changes. Articles Cited by. Understory light availability declined with increasing soil N supply, while understory Abies lasiocarpa had strong correlations between foliar N% and soil N availability, despite shading effects. There, neither protection in small gaps nor access to mycorrhizal networks were sufficient to create favourable regeneration conditions. Douglas-fir families differed in their tendency to transfer carbon and nitrogen to kin. Some fungi live inside the roots of trees and form mycorrhizas (literally “fungus-roots”). Suzanne Simard is a world-leading scientist who has developed a strong, well-recognized research program at UBC. Verified email at ubc.ca - Homepage. Franco) trees in an old-growth forest. Furthermore, molecular characterization of Armillaria using translation elongation factor-1 alpha (tef-1) and ITS revealed the occurrence of A. gallica, reported for the first time at this site. Her main focus is on the below-ground fungal networks that connect trees and facilitate underground inter-tree communication and interaction. Group-project Module (weeks 4-6): Each group will involve approximately five students, depending on the class size. British Columbia’s Interior Douglas fir forests are predicted to move north, following the climate they thrive in. TED Radio Hour (3:15 mark) The sooner the better for this powerful vaccine. Influence of kin, density, soil inoculum potential and interspecific competition on interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. TED Radio Hour featured UBC forestry professor Suzanne Simard for her research in tree communications. Refereed Journal Articles, Published Simard, S.W., Asay, A.K., Beiler, K.J., Bingham, M.A., Deslippe, J.R., He, X., Philip, L.J., Song, Y., Teste, F.P. Her scientific interests during her time at UBC’s Faculty of Forestry were focused on kin recognition/ selection in interior Douglas-fir and the role mycorrhizal networks play in that interaction. Suzanne Simard et sa fille devant le centre de recherche en foresterie de l'UBC. Find contact's direct phone number, email address, work history, and more. She—and other scientists studying roots, and also chemical signals and even the sounds plant make—have pushed the study of plants into the realm of intelligence. Fungal α-diversity in the A horizon increased with stumping regardless of tree species composition and had a tendency to increase in the FH and B horizons. “Dr. glauca (Beissn.) A mycorrhizal network is formed when two or more plants are linked by the same mycorrhizal fungus. SUNDERLAND, Terry. Mycorrhizal networks in xeric and mesic old-growth interior Doublas-fir forest plots (2012), Natural Regeneration Potential of Douglas-Fir Following Wildfire and Clearcut Harvesting (2011), The Role of Ectomycorrhizal Networks in Plant-to-Plant Facilitation Across Climatic Moisture Gradient (2011), Carbon, Plant and Microbial Dynamics in Low-Arctic Tundra (2010), Effects of Nurse Tree Species on Growth Environment and Physiology of Underplanted Toona ciliata Roem in Subtropical Argentinian Plantations (2009), Interacting effects of soil nitrogen supply and light availability on understory sapling growth and foliar attributes (2008), Western hemlock regeneration on coarse woody debris is facilitated by linkage into a mycorrhizal network in an old-growth forest (2018), Forest canopy gap size affects regeneration potential of interior Douglas-fir (2016), Networks of communication: defense-related signal transfer between tree seedlings via mycorrhizal networks and an educational mycorrhizal-focused video game (2016), Interspecific Interactions in Mixed Stands of Douglas fir and paper birch (2015), Mycorrhizal facilitation of kin recogniation in interior Douglas-fir (2013). Recent work suggests MNs also transfer defense-related information from pathogen-, herbivore-, or mechanically-damaged plants to unharmed neighbors. Dr. Suzanne Simard is a Professor of Forest Ecology at the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the leader of The Mother Tree Project. Professor. 2424 Main Mall. British Columbia’s Interior Douglas fir forests are predicted to move north, following the climate they thrive in. UBC scientist Suzanne Simard researches how the oldest trees in forests nurture, communicate with and protect younger seedlings. https://gustavus.edu/events/nobelconference/2018/simard.php The results from chapter 2 helped to determine the important predictor variables (light and tree size) that were used in investigating the importance of spatially explicit competition on the development of juvenile trees (chapter 3). I also found the first evidence that there is carbon transfer from mature trees to regenerating seedlings established on CWD. Increased disturbance severity, either by wildfire or clearcutting, led to a uniform ectomycorrhizal community dominated by Wilcoxina sp. My research addressed two objectives: 1) To compare establishment and survival of western hemlock germinants among different microsites (CWD with different wood breakdown levels and forest floor) in the forest understory; and 2) To investigate whether carbon is transferred through mycorrhizal networks from mature trees to seedlings established on CWD. Mycorrhization of western hemlock seedlings did not differ between forest clearcut type or treatment group; however, an inhibitory effect of forest floor collected under mature western redcedar trees on the growth of western hemlock seedlings was unexpectedly detected. Furthermore, herbivory (in the form of western spruce budworm defoliation as well as manual defoliation) induced transfer of carbon to kin over strangers. Positive expression of both genes across donors and receivers and pervasive presence of spider mites suggested signal transfer may either have not occurred or been masked by already ongoing defensive responses. The daughter of a logging family in British Columbia, Suzanne Simard was inspired to study trees. Similarly, Pseudomonadales, known for their antagonistic role against pathogens, increased significantly in all three soil horizons with stumping and was especially observed in association with birch and its admixtures.
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