Values on branches indicate bootstrap support (only shown when >50) and Bayesian support value (only shown when >0.90). 2015). Like most sponges, they pump water through their bodies to obtain food: plankton, bacteria and nutrients from the seawater. Also, the inconsistencies of the placement of certain groups relative to other groups illustrate that the phylogenetic relationships between the groups cannot be completely resolved with the combination of markers used in this study. Mar Policy 48:123–125, Rocha LA, Bowen BW (2008) Speciation in coral-reef fishes. Double peaks were called when the height of the secondary peak was at least 60% of that of the primary peak in both the forward and reverse sequence reads. Sponges in the genus Xestospongia exist in many morphotypes and include the two giant barrel sponges Xestospongia muta, which is ubiquitous throughout coral reefs in the Caribbean, and Xestospongia testudinaria, which can be found throughout Indo-Pacific reef environments. Oscules on the inner side of vase; 0.2 - 0.3 cm (Ref. We found three potential giant barrel sponge species in the central Indo-Pacific (groups 1, 2, 3), three in the tropical Atlantic (groups 7, 8, 9), one in the western Indian Ocean (group 6) and one in the Red Sea (group 5). 2011; Swierts et al. Three species of giant barrel sponge are currently recognized in two distinct geographic regions, the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific. 415). Most studies that have focused on the distribution and evolution of marine species cover small spatial scales and become more useful when they are compared to more wide-ranging studies (Briggs and Bowen 2013; Cowman and Bellwood 2013a). Amplification was performed in a 25 µL total reaction volume with 15.5 µL sterile water, 5 µL dNTPs (2.5 mM), 2.5 µL coralload buffer (Qiagen), 0.4 µL of each primer (10 µM), 0.25 µL taq polymerase (Qiagen) and 1 µL DNA template (20 ng µL−1). Instead, our results show a unique evolutionary history, suggesting intertwined species complexes in different ocean basins. All of the mtDNA haplotypes are confined to one nDNA group within a geographic region, suggesting biological species. To our knowledge, the intertwined evolutionary history of tropical Atlantic and Indo-Pacific taxa we found for giant barrel sponges has never been found in other benthic reef animals. Physical barriers are less obvious in seas and oceans than on land, and many marine organisms have long-range dispersal capabilities during early life stages. The nuclear adenine triphosphate synthesis-β intron (ATPsβ) is very variable in giant barrel sponges, and because it is unlinked to the mtDNA, it serves as a good additional marker to identify potential species (Bentlage and Wörheide 2007; Swierts et al. Bioinformatics 23:2947–2948, Levitan DR, Fukami H, Jara J, Kline D, McGovern TM, McGhee KE, Swanson CA, Knowlton N (2004) Mechanisms of reproductive isolation among sympatric broadcast-spawning corals of the Montastraea annularis species complex. 3). The importance of geographic isolation, possibly related to sea currents, was suggested as a driving force in sponge speciation (DeBiasse et al. In the western Indian Ocean, we found five different haplotypes in 21 sponges that were spread over the haplotype network; three of these haplotypes were only present in this region. Article Nat Geosci 3:653–659, Mayr E (1942) Systematics and the origin of species, from the viewpoint of a zoologist. Sponges of diverse size, shape, and color. Article J Org Chem 56:63–66, CAS This project will include comparisons of growth and reproductive output of several species in each class. Congruent patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees of giant barrel sponges provided evidence for the existence of multiple reproductively isolated species, particularly where they occurred in sympatry. Coral Reefs 26:807–816, Bickford D, Lohman DJ, Sodhi NS, Ng PK, Meier R, Winker K, Ingram KK, Das I (2007) Cryptic species as a window on diversity and conservation. Mean genetic distance for the nDNA was considerably higher than for the mtDNA. Xestospongia muta(Giant or Caribbean Barrel Sponge) Order: Haplosclerida (No Common Name) Class: Demospongiae (Common Sponges) Phylum: Porifera (Sponges) Fig. The kingdom is Animalia. The congruent identification of a phylogenetic lineage by multiple unlinked genetic loci indicates that it is genetically isolated from other such lineages, and thus qualifies as a species, because only in separate species will the coalescent histories of the different markers agree (Avise and Ball 1990; Coyne and Orr 2004; Padial et al. Coral Reefs 16:S47–S52, Pandolfi JM, Jackson JBXC, Baron N, Bradbury RH (2005) Are US coral reefs on the slippery slope to slime? 2005), mitochondrial variation was low (π = 0.0032). an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.Skeleton 9. Geology 6:630–634, Kerr RG, Kerr SL, Djerassi C (1991) Biosynthetic studies of marine lipids. Both groups show congruent patterns in the sense that they both host unique mtDNA haplotypes and unique nDNA alleles and are closely related to each other for both markers. Caribbean Journal of Science 29:75–88, Zhan A, Macisaac HJ, Cristescu ME (2010) Invasion genetics of the Ciona intestinalis species complex: from regional endemism to global homogeneity. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 253:8–31, Horne JB, van Herwerden L, Choat JH, Robertson DR (2008) High population connectivity across the Indo-Pacific: congruent lack of phylogeographic structure in three reef fish congeners. We thank Friso Dekker, Maarten van Gemert, Christine Hörnlein, Yusheng Huang, Laurie van Reemst, Ee Crovetto, Ana-Rita Polonia, Rossana Freitas, Anne Bialecki, Mike Berumen, Jaaziel Garcia Hernandez, Sumaitt Putchakarn, Chad Scott, Nguyen Khac Bat, Swee Cheng Lim, Zarinah Waheed, Yosephine Tuti, Betsie Voetdijk, Peter Kuperus and Marcel Eurlings for logistic support, collecting and laboratory assistance. They did not share any nuclear alleles, indicating that there has been no recent genetic exchange between giant barrel sponges from these areas. 2007). MtDNA diversity of the Indonesian giant barrel sponge Xestospongia testudinaria (Porifera: Haplosclerida) – implications from partial cytochrome oxidase 1 sequences - Volume 96 Special Issue - Edwin Setiawan, Nicole J. de Voogd, Thomas Swierts, John N.A. Aquat Biol 23:1–13, Montalvo NF, Hill RT (2011) Sponge-associated bacteria are strictly maintained in two closely related but geographically distant sponge hosts. Nat Clim Chang 3:528–530, Briggs JC, Bowen BW (2012) A realignment of marine biogeographic provinces with particular reference to fish distributions. With possibly three species present in the tropical Atlantic, we have to consider that such a broad size range may be the result of lumping three different spicule size ranges and an uneven distribution of the various cryptic species among locations. 5. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 272:573–579, Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP (2003) MRBAYES 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. Coral Reefs 91:560–570, Ritson-Williams R, Becerro MA, Paul VJ (2005) Spawning of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta in Belize. Nature 457:718–721, Maloof AC, Rose CV, Beach R, Samuels BM, Calmet CC, Erwin DH, Poirier GR, Yao N, Simons FJ (2010) Possible animal-body fossils in pre-Marinoan limestones from South Australia. Hence, the sponges from the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific are separated by several barriers that have developed at various times throughout history (Cowman and Bellwood 2013b). Analyses were terminated after the chains converged significantly as indicated by an average standard deviation of split frequencies <0.01. It may also be a driving force for giant barrel sponges, especially considering the groups that are confined to the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean, which represent distinct biogeographic provinces (Briggs and Bowen 2012; Bowen et al. Some genetic groups (e.g., groups 1, 6 and 7) were not statistically supported in the nuclear gene tree, but these could still represent (incipient) species because they occur in different parts of the world’s oceans and are thus geographically isolated. Most genetic studies of sponges have indicated the existence of cryptic species and refuted ocean-wide distributions of several taxa (Duran and Rützler 2006; Swierts et al. with the base broader than the top. 2012) for both the combined mtDNA and single nDNA markers using the default software settings. At that time, the western Tethys was the center of global marine biodiversity, but this subsequently shifted eastwards to its present location in the Indo-Australian archipelago (Renema et al. Orange Lumpy Encrusting Sponge. Also, heterozygotes were only found with both alleles within the same nuclear group providing further support that different groups are reproductively isolated (ESM Fig. Based on these criteria, the individuals from the central Indo-Pacific could be separated into three groups: group 1—haplotypes C1A1, C1A8 and C2A1; group 2—haplotypes C4A3 and C4A4; and group 3—haplotypes C5A2, C5A4 and C6A2. Reaching sizes of at least 6 feet (1.8 m) across, this is one of the largest sponge species wherever it lives. Sequences were checked using CodonCode Aligner version 188.8.131.52 (CodonCode Corporation). Google Scholar, Bentlage B, Wörheide G (2007) Low genetic structuring among Pericharax heteroraphis (Porifera: Calcarea) populations from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia), revealed by analysis of nrDNA and nuclear intron sequences. 1991). However, there is an inconsistency in their placement relative to the other groups, since they are most closely related to group 8 in the nDNA phylogenetic tree (Fig. J Biogeogr 43:2136–2146, Diaz MC, Rützler K (2001) Sponges: an essential component of Caribbean coral reefs. 26. 1999). volume 36, pages933–945(2017)Cite this article. Science 321:654–657, Richards VP, Bernard AM, Feldheim KA, Shivji MS (2016) Patterns of population structure and dispersal in the long-lived “redwood” of the coral reef, the giant barrel sponge (Xestospongia muta). Congruent patterns between mtDNA and nDNA markers of giant barrel sponges around the globe point to the existence of multiple genetically isolated taxa and support our hypothesis of the existence of additional species. (0 photos) Cake-like Sponges (7 photos) 2013; Setiawan et al. On April 27, 2012 an outbreak of Sponge Orange Band Disease (SOB) was detected off the coast of South Florida. Sequence archive. Taxonomy; Resources Gallery did you know that the Giant Barrel Sponge can live for over 2,000 years. 3); a larger and more detailed rectangular phylogenetic tree is provided in the Electronic supplementary material, ESM, Fig. Bull Mar Sci 58:792–803, Vermeij GJ (2001) Community assembly in the sea: geologic history of the living shore biota. Certain other groups were statistically supported, which is, particularly in combination with their sympatric occurrence, a strong indication for speciation. Box 338, 6700 AH, Wageningen, The Netherlands, Departamento de Biologia, CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal, You can also search for this author in The giant barrel sponge is a large sponge that lives on coral reefs around the Caribbean Sea and adjacent waters. Bioinformatics 19:1572–1574, Röthing T, Voolstra CR (2016) Xestospongia testudinaria nighttime mass spawning observation in Indonesia. It is, therefore, important to study and quantify the diversity of these systems and understand the evolutionary processes that have led to this diversity. Dark Volcano Sponge. Xestospongia muta. Rough Tube Sponge. Sympatric populations of X. testudinaria and X. bergquistia spawn at different times of the year near Australia, possibly triggered by water temperature (Fromont and Bergquist 1994). 2016) were present in this dataset. Science 265:1547–1551, Jarman SN, Ward RD, Elliott NG (2002) Oligonucleotide primers for PCR amplification of coelomate introns. Giant Barrel Sponge (12 photos) Haliclona mucifibrosa (0 photos) Orange Lumpy Encrusting (4 photos) Haliclona Sp. 2004). We made separate statistical parsimony networks for the combined mtDNA sequences (CO1 + ATP6) and the nDNA sequences with TCS v 1.21 (Clement et al. High-Veined Encrusting Sponge. [http://eol.org/pages/338183/overview, downloaded 27 March 2015] TRAITS. 4. Seven of the nine CO1-haplotypes (C1–C9) previously submitted to GenBank (López-Legentil and Pawlik 2009; Swierts et al. It grows at depths from 10 meters down to 120 metres (390 ft), and can reach a diameter of 1.8 metres (6 feet). A ninth group (group 4) consisted of a single sample from Taiwan. Trumpet fish represent a so-called ‘global ring species complex’, in which different lineages have come into contact after three to four million years of isolation and appear to be merging (Bowen et al. Nat Methods 9:772, de Bakker DM, Meesters EH, van Bleijswijk JD, Luttikhuizen PC, Breeuwer JAJ, Becking LE (2016) Population genetic structure, abundance, and health status of two dominant benthic species in the Saba Bank National Park, Caribbean Netherlands: Montastraea cavernosa and Xestospongia muta. 2014). All PCR products were sequenced in both directions by BaseClear, Leiden, the Netherlands or Macrogen Europe, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. was investigated. 2011). Understanding and protecting our natural resources. Unfortunately, this large and important animal group has long been understudied in coral reef ecology (Diaz and Rützler 2001). Taxonomy. 2013). For the CO1 gene, we used the primers C1-J2165 (5′-GAAGTTTATATTTTAATTTTACCDGG-3′) and C1-Npor2760 (5′-TCTAGGTAATCCAGCTAAACC-3′), which amplified a fragment of 544 base pairs (bp). 1). particular, giant barrel sponges, which belong to the genus Xestospongia, have drawn the attention of the scientiﬁc community due to their pharmacological activities and their role in ecosystems.19,20 In ecological systems, their large size allows them to play an essential role in the reef, providing However, present-day ocean currents and geographic barriers cannot explain why giant barrel sponges in the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific do not form monophyletic lineages, and why in each ocean basin multiple genetically isolated lineages exist in sympatry. On tropical reefs, sponge diversity and abundance can be higher than that of corals (Diaz and Rützler 2001). We found one group in the western Indian Ocean with mitochondrial haplotypes C2A8 and C2A9 (group 6), and one group in the Red Sea with mitochondrial haplotype C5A7 (group 5). Adding this gene to the CO1 gene expanded the number of haplotypes in our dataset from seven (C1, C2, C4–C6, C8, C9) to seventeen (Table 2). Definition of Sponges 3. Decomposing kelp that sinks to the seafloor provides food for animals in the deep sea. For example, some haplotypes of the I3-M11 partition of the CO1 gene are shared between Indonesia (X. testudinaria) and Florida (X. muta); hence, two individuals from different ocean basins can be more closely related for this slowly evolving gene than two sympatric individuals on the same reef (Swierts et al. Giant barrel sponges Xestospongiatestudinaria(Lamarck, 1813) and Xestospongiabergquistia(Fromont, 1991) in the Indo-Pacific and Xestospongiamuta(Schmidt, 1870) in the Caribbean, are among the largest known sponges (Demospongiae; Haplosclerida), measuring up to 2.4 meters in height and width. This information provides insight into genetic divergence among tropical reefs before physical barriers impeded gene flow between the Indo-Pacific and tropical Atlantic. An ABGD analysis on our nuclear data supported the groups 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9 with recursive partitions at a prior maximal distance of 0.0046, while groups 1, 6 and 7 were not supported as separate groups (ESM S2). The third objective is to investigate the importance of photosymbionts in the chemical defense and bleaching of the giant barrel sponge Xestospongia muta. It is important to note that some discrepancies exist in the results from our statistical analyses. Thomas Swierts. Note that not all groups are monophyletic in the nDNA tree. 2010). Small pores in the body wall are connected to channels lined by cells with flagella, and the rhythmical beating of these draws water Front Zool 7:16, Palumbi SR (1997) Molecular biogeography of the Pacific. 2016). Sea otters wrap themselves in giant kelp to keep from floating away while sleeping. In: Bertness M, Gaines S, Hay M (eds) Marine community ecology. J Biogeogr 40:1023–1035, Clement M, Posada DCKA, Crandall KA (2000) TCS: a computer program to estimate gene genealogies. 2010). Other morphological characteristics might also differentiate between ‘cryptic’ species. IEEE Trans Automat Contr 19:716–723, Avise JC, Ball RM (1990) Principles of genealogical concordance in species concepts and biological taxonomy. Mol Ecol 19:952–967, Guindon S, Gascuel O (2003) A simple, fast and accurate method to estimate large phylogenies by maximum-likelihood. In the early Miocene, the African-Arabian Plate moved northwards to adjoin the Eurasian Plate (Aitchison et al. Coral Reefs For instance, sponges with haplotype C5 for the CO1 gene are associated with a digitate outer morphology in both the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific (López-Legentil and Pawlik 2009; Swierts et al. Help pages, FAQs, UniProtKB manual, documents, news archive and Biocuration projects. After 6–12 h, the ethanol was changed and samples were stored at −20 °C. Samples that contained two nucleotide positions with double peaks were reconstructed using DnaSP v5.10.01 with the PHASE v2.1 algorithm (Stephens et al. 2010; Richards et al. Colors indicate regions of origin. 3. Contents: History of Sponges Definition of Sponges Origin of Sponges General […] (2016) from one sample from Tanzania, was not found in our dataset, and no new haplotypes were found for the CO1 gene. Mar Biol 141:377–386, Fromont J, Bergquist PR (1994) Reproductive biology of three sponge species of the genus Xestospongia (Porifera: Demospongiae: Petrosida) from the Great Barrier Reef. The statistical parsimony network constructed with TCS from our nuclear data resulted in seven unconnected statistical parsimony networks. Coral Reefs 36, 933–945 (2017). DNA was extracted from sponge tissue using the DNeasy Blood and Tissue kit (Qiagen) following the manufacturer’s instructions. Giant barrel sponges from the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific sharing the same CO1 haplotype have both been related to an exterior morphology consisting of digitate structures (López-Legentil and Pawlik 2009; Swierts et al. Previously, the closure of the Isthmus of Panama, approximately 3 million yr ago (Keigwin 1978, was suggested as the final geographic separation between giant barrel sponges from the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific (Montalvo and Hill 2011; Swierts et al. Integr Comp Biol 45:377–385, Zea S (1993) Cover of sponges and other sessile organisms in rocky and coral reef habitats of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean Sea. 2008). 2013). We compared a phylogenetic tree constructed from 285 alleles of the nuclear intron ATPsβ to the 17 mitochondrial haplotypes. (2013), but amplification and sequencing were repeated in this study to confirm haplotype assignment. Giant barrel sponges have not been found in the eastern Pacific and the eastern tropical Atlantic. PLoS One 7:e35105, van Veghel MLJ, Cleary DFR, Bak RPM (1996) Interspecific interactions and competitive ability of the polymorphic reef-building coral Montastrea annularis. Eine bekannte Sehenswürdigkeit in der Nähe ist in Obri Sud das Restaurant mit dem Riesenfass. As is common in sponges (Wörheide et al. Amplification was performed in a 25 µL total reaction volume with 14 µL sterile water, 5 µL dNTPs (2.5 mM), 2.5 µL coralload buffer (Qiagen), 1.5 µL BSA (Promega), 0.4 µL (10 µM) of each primer, 0.25 µL taq polymerase (Qiagen) and 1 µL DNA template (20 ng µL−1).
Texture Id Reviews, Logitech G533 Wireless, What Is A Good Ball In Rounders, Sony Mdr-cd900st Vs Mdr-7506, Cheese Mayo Sauce, What Are The Subjects In Computer Science In Class 11, How Many Different Climbing Routes Are There On Mount Everest, Sequence Diagram Ref, Kristin Ess Curl Defining Jelly, Greenfield, Nh Zip Code,