During CHI reviewing this year, Samantha and I noticed many references to thematic analysis used language and concepts Braun and Clarke have often disavowed. V Clarke, V Braun. However, analysis should be considered recursive – in other words moving back and forth between each phase. It provides an easily interpretable and concise description of the emergent themes and patterns within a dataset, usually as the foundational phase of interpretation. eCollection 2014. TA is best thought of as an umbrella term for a set of approaches for analysing qualitative data that share a focus on identifying themes (patterns of meaning) in qualitative data. Useful to HCI could be this paper on GT for literature reviews, and the proposal to use flexible coding for analysing interviews or observations. It is concerned with the identification and analysis of patterns of meaning (themes) and constitutes a widely applicable, cost-effective and flexible tool for exploratory research. Qualitative Analysis: An Introduction Virginia Braun & Victoria Clarke (2006): Using thematic analysis in psychology, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3:2, 77-101 Many ways to analyze your data Content analysis Narrative analysis Conversation analysis Discourse analysis Interpretative phenomenological analysis Grounded theory Thematic analysis Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. Learning to do it provides the qualitative researcher with a foundation in the basic skills needed to engage with other approaches to qualitative data analysis. We’ve also kept up with discussions on thematic analysis in psychology and social sciences. Accessibility CrossRef Google Scholar | The six steps prescribed by Braun and Clarke (2006) to carry out a thematic analysis are guidelines and should not be used as prescriptive, linear, and inflexible rules when analysing data. These are not rules to follow rigidly, but rather a series of conceptual and practice oriented ‘tools’ that guides the analysis to facilitate a rigorous process of data interrogation and engagement. Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods, 222-248, 2015. Thematic Analysis in HCI. Since qualitative data is the type of data which is gathered directly from the primary sources, through interviews, surveys, focus groups etc., it is important that this data is analyzed suitably to identify the relevant trends and turn raw data into valuable information. We think thematic analysis (TA) offers a useful – and a relatively easy to teach and learn – basic introduction to qualitative analysis (see Braun & Clarke, 2006, 2012, 2013; Clarke & Braun, 2013); yet even teaching a fairly accessible approach like TA presents challenges in the classroom. London: Sage. Phase 1: Becoming familiar with the data. Initial themes might be mapped and linked to tell a story about the data, what Braun and Clarke call the central meaning-based concept, the story about the data. The coding process inherits from the approach. | Braun and Clarke (2006) state that thematic analysis is a foundational method of analysis that needed to be defined and described to solidify its place in qualitative research. The result of the analysis is a theme explaining people’s experiences, perceptions, views or representations of a given topic. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. Braun and Clarke's six phases of thematic analysis. One of the advantages of (our reflexive version of) TA is that it’s theoretically-flexible. On a more positive note, however, thematic analysis argues Braun and Clarke, (2006) provides a flexible and accessible form of analysis, an understanding of which, can be easily grasped. PLEASE NOTE PART 3 IS NOT YET AVAILABLE & IT IS LIKELY TO BE SOME TIME BEFORE IT IS. You can download a PDF of these guidelines – and we encourage you to share with editors, reviewers, and others who might find them useful. We hope you find this information a rich and useful resource to facilitate your TA learning and practice, as unfortunately, we simply don’t have time to answer in person the many, many queries we get. The Lifecycle to Build a Web App for Prediction from Scratch, Play With Your ML Dataset — Cheatsheet in R, Ten Ways Cognitive Biases Impact Data Design Work. Professor Virginia Braun and Dr Victoria Clarke provide an introduction to their popular approach to thematic analysis. pp. This means it can be used within different frameworks, to answer quite different types of research question. It can be done at a semantic or latent level. This chapter introduces thematic analysis (TA), a method that has become a widely-used tool for analysing qualitative data, both in psychology and beyond. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. When analyzing how people make sense of a given system while interacting with it, or make sense of information using a given system, based on observations or video recording, you could consider Interaction Analysis or multimodal analysis. Let’s say you’re studying women’s negative perceptions of technology for mobility. Braun and Clarke propose resources for both researchers and reviewers on their website. Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2020). The third step was to search for themes, and an initial thematic map (Braun and Clarke 2006) was created showing eight main themes: positive aspects, negative aspects, risk, vulnerability, sexuality, identity, barriers/source of information and support. | We distinguish between three main types of TA – our reflexive approach, coding reliability TA and codebook approaches, which include methods like template A to Z Directory In 2015 at the very beginning of my PhD, my advisor gave me a simple yet essential advice for academic writing: look at papers similar to what you want to achieve. What counts as quality practice in (reflexive) thematic analysis?, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 10.1080/14780887.2020.1769238, (1-25), (2020). Despite these similarities, differences exist. These codebooks may be presented as a template (which can also provide an article structure), a framework (which insists on showing each stage of the analysis) or a matrix. Braun and Clarke do provide rules of thumb regarding the number of interviews or research data in their guide for beginners — minimum four or five dense interviews for a paper. In this chapter, we first outline the basics of what TA is and explain why it is so useful. Here we draw on Braun and Clarke’s (2006) framework and apply it in a systematic manner to describe and explain the process of analysis within the context of learning and teaching research. We illustrate the process using a worked example based on (with permission) a short extract from a focus group interview, conducted with undergraduate students. After reading far too many manuscripts which either mash-up different versions of TA, or say they followed ‘Braun & Clarke’ and then do something completely at odds with what we’ve recommended, we developed some detailed guidelines intended for editors and reviewers who receive manuscripts that use ‘thematic analysis’. Generally, thematic analysis is the most widely used qualitative approach to analysing interviews. 1701: 2013: Thematic analysis . According to them, thematic analysis is a method used for identifying, analysing, and reporting patterns (themes) within the data [ (2006, p.79). Authors Virginia Braun 1 , Victoria Clarke 2 Affiliations 1 School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland Mail Centre 1142, Auckland, New Zealand; firstname.lastname@example.org. Some time last year, they even gave their approach a new name: reflexive thematic analysis. The widely-used version of TA we outline in this chapter is fairly unique in the canon of qualitative analytic approaches in that it just offers the researcher analytic tools to make sense of data. Qualitative analysis either referenced Grounded Theory by Charmaz, thematic analysis by Braun and Clarke (B&C), or simply stated using open coding. Themes are hypothesis that are developed using, or checked against, the data. 2014 Oct 16;9:26152. doi: 10.3402/qhw.v9.26152. The approach to TA that Braun & Clarke have developed  involves a six-phase process for doing analysis. Patterns are identified through a rigorous process of data familiarisation, data coding, and theme development and revision. These guidelines expand and clarify the points we initially made in our 15 point checklist for quality (reflexive) TA, and are useful beyond the editing/reviewing context. For instance, maybe the inquiry about mobility technology is grounded in critical disability studies and urban theory; maybe it’s rooted in pragmatic urban sociology. More generally, it constitutes a cornerstone of qualitative data analysis. Introduction. Thematic Analysis (TA) is an accessible, flexible, and increasingly popular method of qualitative data analysis. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. I am also co-author on a book about thematic analysis which is part of the American Psychological Association’s series on qualitative methods. A common pitfall in (reflexive TA) theme development is identifying a feature of the data, rather than meaning-based patterns. Braun V, Clarke V. Thematic Analysis You can report the obvious or semantic meanings in the data, or you can interrogate the latent meanings, Linked to the fact that it is just a method, one of the the assumptions and ideas that lie behind what is main reasons TA is so flexible is that it can be con-explicitly stated (see Braun & Clarke, 2006). " In 2006 Braun and Clarke published an article that described to novice researchers how to use thematic analysis in a step-by-step manner. Thematic analysis is a method of analyzing qualitative data.It is usually applied to a set of texts, such as interview transcripts.The researcher closely examines the data to identify common themes – topics, ideas and patterns of meaning that come up repeatedly. 1544: 2015: What can “thematic analysis” offer health and wellbeing researchers? Thematic analysis (TA) is a popular and foundational method of analyzing qualitative policy data. It’s theoretically flexible: it can be guided by concepts from a variety of fields, as well as being used in a variety of research approaches (inductive, deductive, semantic…). Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In reality, the separation isn’t always that rigid. Thematic analysis Victoria Clarke Department of Health and Social Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK Correspondence email@example.com & Virginia Braun School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand The conceptual framework of the thematic analysis for my interviews was mainly built upon the theoretical positions of Braun and Clarke (2006). The different versions of TA tend to share some degree of theoretical flexibility, but can differ enormously in terms of both underlying philosophy and procedures for producing themes. These pages focus on defining our approach to TA and addressing queries about TA according to the way we have conceptualised it. Braun V, Clarke V. (Mis)conceptualising themes, thematic analysis, and other problems with Fugard and Potts’ (2015) sample-size tool for thematic analysis. Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006) Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology. Introduction. The purpose of TA is to identify patterns of meaning across a dataset that provide an answer to the research question being addressed. They should rather be used in relation to the research question and the available data. Topic summary themes cluster around experiences of X, benefits of Y, barriers to Z, and so on. Written with the help of Samantha Finnigan! We've developed this site to provide a key resource for people are interested in learning about, teaching about, and/or doing, TA – especially the approach we’ve developed: reflexive thematic analysis. I have published a number of book chapters about thematic analysis with Victoria Clarke, Virginia Braun, and Gareth Terry. The example in this article is a simplified version of thematic analysis designed to help understand how the process works. This is intended as a starting- rather than end-point! What’s the difference between reflexive thematic analysis (e.g., ‘Braun & Clarke’) and other approaches? The theoretical approach of the analysis was taken from Braun and Clarke and inspired by their ‘six-phase guide’. Grounded theory, as the name suggests, emphasizing the development of an explanatory model — and the themes are developed based on mapping of relations between the codes, testing alternative explanations or outliers. A paper isn’t the final answer to a question. Briefly, thematic analysis (TA) is a popular method for analysing qualitative data in many disciplines and fields, and can be applied in lots of different ways, to lots of different datasets, to address lots of different research questions! Unfortunately, there are no magic formulas for determining sample size in TA research! It does not measure (inter)reliability. Site map We (Virginia Braun and Victoria Clarke) feature the resources we've developed (often with Nikki Hayfield and Gareth Terry), but the content goes way beyond those too. We think thematic analysis (TA) offers a useful – and a relatively easy to teach and learn – basic introduction to qualitative analysis (see Braun & Clarke, 2006, 2012, 2013; Clarke & Braun, 2013); yet even teaching a fairly accessible approach like TA presents challenges in the classroom. New to qualitative methods, I analyzed a sample of qualitative papers published at CHI that year. What can "thematic analysis" offer health and wellbeing researchers? Themes are conceptualized based on the data, based on the research question — which may evolve and lead to start a new analysis process. Braun and Clarke point to Boyatzis (1998) as a good example of this approach. All-in-One Thematic Analysis Software. Deductive/Inductive: codes would be informed by the hypothesis of the researchers and the theoretical framework. Useful papers on (reflexive) thematic analysis by It is generally unrealistic to conduct interviews with a whole population and therefore the issue of what is a suitable and sufficient … In an inductive approach, the research theme is progressively refined, whereas in a deductive approach, codes would be informed by the hypothesis of the researchers. There are forms of thematic analysis working well with the requirement that the codebook be provided (see below). Additional Information : This is an electronic version of an article published in "Braun, Virginia and Clarke, Victoria (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Interaction analysis focuses on how participants develop knowledge or act using both social and material features of their environment — multimodal analysis emphasizes the importance of considering all different aspects and modes of communication (visual, embodied, speech…). To cite: Brulé, E., Finnigan, S. 2020. The psychologist 26 (2), 2013. In 2006 Braun and Clarke published an article that described to novice researchers how to use thematic analysis in a step-by-step manner. However, there’s no such thing as data saturation nor is there a strict guide about the quantity of data collected. The data suitable for this type of inquiry and research approach is qualitative. 8-10). What themes are not, in the words of B&C: The most common problem we see is topic summaries being treated as themes–a student once memorably called these ‘bucket themes’ because they’re effectively a ‘topic dump’. thematic analysis (TA) shows that there is a lack of descriptions issues exist due respect to the concepts, process, ... Braun and Clarke (2006) argue that Grounded Theory is very similar to Thematic Analysis in terms their procedures for coding ‘themes’ or coding from data (pp. Interpretive phenomenological analysis is another option — note that reflexive TA can be done within a phenomenology theoretical framework, but although we’re no expert, would suggest the type of paper and the write-up differ given IPA approaches rely on few and highly detailed reports of interaction. Reflexive thematic analysis is an approach to analysing qualitative data to answer broad or narrow research questions about people’s experiences, views and perceptions, and representations of a given phenomena. As junior researchers, we found applying thematic analysis both easy (a way to annotate data) and difficult (there are theoretical and methodological ramifications we don’t have a clear grasp on). We illustrate the process using a worked example based on (with permission) a short extract from a focus group interview, conducted with undergraduate students. | This would be a deductive approach, informed by previous research about women having negative experiences of public spaces. This six-phase process for thematic analysis is based on the work of Braun and Clarke and their reflexive approach to thematic analysis. Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. Feedback on this page, Māori and Pacific Psychology Research Group, The New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study, The Māori Identity and Financial Attitudes Study, Different orientations in thematic analysis, Phases in doing reflexive thematic analysis, Evaluating and reviewing (reflexive) thematic analysis research | a checklist for editors and reviewers, Answers to frequently asked questions about thematic analysis (April 2019), Reading list and resources for thematic analysis, Guidelines for reviewers and editors evaluating thematic analysis manuscripts (April 2019). Reflexive thematic analysis is an approach to analysing qualitative … We now call our approach reflexive TA as it differs from most other approaches to TA in terms of both underlying philosophy and procedures for theme development. We initially outlined our approach in a 2006 paper, Using thematic analysis in psychology. We distinguish between three main types of TA – our reflexive approach, coding reliability TA and codebook approaches, which include methods like template analysis and framework analysis. Privacy There’s bound to be disagreements about when and how it should be applied. This analysis is adapted to ‘Understanding Users’ type of studies with research questions that don’t focus on representations, since this type of questions is a core focus of the Reflexive TA approach. We thought it would be helpful to summarize their recent writings on the methods, in hope it would be helpful to researchers new to thematic analysis as we were. In reflexive thematic analysis, more often only an excerpt of the coding and the description of the coding process provided (source). There are different ways TA can be approached – within our reflexive approach all variations are possible: More inductive, semantic and (critical) realist approaches tend to cluster together; ditto more deductive, latent and constructionist ones. For some, we provide a succinct summary of what they offer. It could be diaries, interviews, surveys, data from participatory design, visual methods such as drawings and storyboards or secondary sources such as “online forums, blogs, websites, magazines, newspaper articles, and police reports”. In this chapter, we first outline the basics of what TA is and explain why it is so useful. Phase Process Result Reflexivity Journal Entries; Phase 1 : Read and re-read data in order to become familiar with what the data entails, paying specific attention to patterns that occur. 2016;19(6):739–43. That type of analysis doesn’t tell a thematic story. It does not pretend to be neutral: all analysis is influenced by the researcher or researchers. Thematic Analysis We (Virginia Braun & Victoria Clarke) have developed an extensive reading list, organised into sections, to help guide you through the diversity of approaches and practices around thematic analysis. Learning to do it provides the qualitative researcher with a foundation in the basic skills needed to engage with other approaches to qualitative data analysis. The course will introduce the principles and practice of reflexive thematic analysis (TA), as described by Virginia Braun, Victoria Clarke, and their colleagues. It might also mix these approaches, hence the coding. Int J Soc Res Methodol. Thematic analysis is one of the most fundamental frameworks of analysis on qualitative data. Gareth Terry Nikki Hayfield Victoria Clarke Virginia Braun. In the terms of Braun & Clarke's scheme, our example fits with an inductive and semantic approach (because we let the data determine our themes, and we focus on the direct content of what is said). sciences. This chapter introduces thematic analysis (TA), a method that has become a widely-used tool for analysing qualitative data, both in psychology and beyond. An inductive way – coding and theme development are directed by the content of the data; A deductive way – coding and theme development are directed by existing concepts or ideas; A semantic way – coding and theme development reflect the explicit content of the data; A latent way – coding and theme development report concepts and assumptions underpinning the data; A (critical) realist or essentialist way – focuses on reporting an assumed reality evident in the data; A constructionist way – focuses on looking at how a certain reality is created by the data. Using thematic analysis in psychology Virginia Braun 1 and Victoria Clarke 2 1 University of Auckland and 2 University of the West of England Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In our reflexive TA approach, you need to think about which approaches suit your project, and actively decide on the ‘version’ of reflexive TA you do. Easily import data from text documents, interview transcripts, focus groups, online surveys, web pages, images, audio and video files, spreadsheets, bibliographic data, YouTube data, and even tweets. Critical realist/constructionist: Finally, researchers might want to make a claim about the objectivity of people’s experiences as they report it (critical realist) — or they might frame it as a study into how people perceive a situation (constructionist). Here we draw on Braun and Clarke’s (2006) framework and apply it in a systematic manner to describe and explain the process of analysis within the context of learning and teaching research. Transition: As Braun and Clarke (2006) have argued, thematic analysis can be conducted within both realist/essentialist and constructionist paradigms, although the outcome and focus will be different from each. | Using SPSS for Windows, Release 6.1.3, standard frequency analysis for each variable was calculated for descriptive information. These phases should be considered to be undertaken sequentially with each phase building on the one before. What’s the difference between reflexive thematic analysis (e.g., ‘Braun & Clarke’) and other approaches? We've cureated an extensive reading list of resources organised into sections, to help guide you through the diversity of approaches and practices around thematic analysis. Reflexive thematic analysis is not theory-agnostic. There’s been some push back recently that it is possible to do grounded theory with no prior knowledge or hypothesis. What is Braun and Clarke’s Reflexive Thematic Analysis and when to use it? It is one of a cluster of methods that focus on identifying patterned meaning across a dataset. This issue is relevant when researchers are interested in examining common views held by a certain group of people. Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology.Braun and Clarke (2006) argued that thematic analysis should be a foundational method for qualitative analysis, as it provides core skills for conducting many other forms of qualitative analysis.
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