New books! These contacts led to Dugin's "belated reconciliation" with the USSR, just as that state was approaching its final demise. Clover.15. Shenfield, 195. If such a dismemberment should not occur, however, Turkey, like China, must be encouraged to expand exclusively southward, "into the Arab world through Baghdad, Damascus, and Riyadh" (244). Verkhovskii and Pribylovskii, 50. The State as a Spatial Organism. In an interview given by Dugin in late July 2001, however, he backed off slightly from this position--presumably in deference to Putin's stated position on China--but only to a degree. Dugin has assailed this rival group as being witting tools of Saudi Arabia and of Wahhabism. The "unstable" state of Finland, which "historically enters into the geopolitical space of Russia" is seen as an exception (316). Versiya, May 29, 2001. The cornerstone of Dugin's approach to the Far East lies in the creation of a "Moscow-Tokyo Axis." Latysheva.36. "If Azerbaijan," Dugin warns, "maintains its [present] pro-Turkish orientation, then that 'country' will be split up among Iran, Russia, and Armenia. He underlines: "Tibet-Sinkiang-Mongolia-Manchuria taken together comprise a security belt of Russia" (363). 30. http://www.arctogaia.com/public/putin/htrr, May 23, 2001.31. 9. We’d love your help. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. "Belorussia," Dugin asserts flatly, "should be seen as a part of Russia" (377). Word count: 7973Copyright HELDREF PUBLICATIONS Jan 31, 2004, Learn more about how your support makes a difference or make a gift now, © Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305. First published in Demokratizatsiya 12.1 (Jan 31, 2004): 41. 5. As in the case of Germany, Japan is to be offered an imperial Grand Bargain. The Gorbachev years (1985-1991) represent, in Dugin's eyes, one of the most wrenching geopolitical defeats in the millennial history of Russia-Eurasia-USSR. China, he maintains, is a danger to Russia both "as a geopolitical base for Atlanticism and by itself, as a country with heightened demographic compactness in quest of 'no man's land'" (360). For a representative sample of Dugin's theoretical fascist writings, see Aleksandr Dugin, Absolyutnaya rodina (Moscow: Arktogeya, 1999). Geopolitical journals and institutes have multiplied, … 41, "What induces the regime to seek a new ideology in Eurasianism?" The goal, as Dugin sees it, is to resuscitate and reinvigorate Eurasia/Russia after the near-fatal geopolitical blows it absorbed from 1989 to 1991. Explores the influence of Eurasianist Aleksandr Dugin on Russia's politics and government. Because of the threat to Russia's vital geopolitical interests represented by China, Dugin holds that the PRC must be dismantled. See "Rossiya dolzhna uchest' oshibki Ameriki," Nezavisimaya gazeta, September 13, 2001. It would also make sense simultaneously to support isolationist tendencies in American politics" (367). Suslov served as head of the committee that organized the congress and then was elected deputy leader of the new movement (with Dugin chosen as the leader). For future expansion purposes, Japan is to be encouraged to impose "its own 'new order,' which it planned to carry out in the 1930s, in the Pacific Ocean" (277). Foundations of geopolitics dugin pdf Best day to book hotel reservations, that of Aleksandr Dugin's neo-fascist treatise, Foundations of Geopolitics. On the key question of Ukraine, Dugin underlines: "Ukraine as a state has no geopolitical meaning. Beginning in 1989, it became clear that "no- one in the Soviet leadership was capable of explaining the logic of traditional [Soviet] foreign policy and, as a result, there took place the lightning-fast destruction of the gigantic Eurasian organism ..." (95). "Stenogramma ..."37. China, in Dugin's perverse view, verges upon being an Atlanticist factotum. The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia : geopolitics Or, in the other case, Russia becomes an offshore ally to Europe and the … One "radical" slogan, Dugin concludes, must be consistently put forward: "The nation is everything; the individual is nothing" (257). PART 1. In order to facilitate the recreation of a vast Russian-dominated continental empire, Dugin advocates the unleashing of Russian nationalist sentiment, but of a specific type. It appears to have been written with the assistance of General Nikolai Klokotov of the General Staff Academy, who served as an official consultant to the project. "At the basis of the geopolitical construction of this [Eurasian] Empire," Dugin writes, "there must be placed one fundamental principle--the principle of 'a common enemy.' "The maximum task [of the future]," he underscores, "is the 'Finlandization' of all of Europe" (369). Well the Wikipedia article implies that they do. As Verk-hovskii and Pribylovskii have pointed out, "The ideology of the National Bolshevik Party was fully generated by one man--Aleksandr Dugin." Foundations of Geopolitics Table of Contents From the Editor INTRODUCTION The definition of “Geopolitics” Tellurocracy and Thassalocracy Geopolitical Teleology Rimland and “Borderland Regions” Geopolitics as Destiny PART 1: THE FOUNDING FATHERS OF GEOPOLITICS Chapter 1. Yaroslava Zabello "Evraziya--prevyshe vsego?" Foundations of Geopolitics. The regime stands in need of a new ideology, but of a traditional one, 'integral and great.' most important strategic base in the thwarting of Turkish aggression to the north and to the east." See "Rossiya, Germaniya i drugie," Elementy, 1 (1992): 22-25. Andrei P. Tsygankov "Hard Line Eurasianism and Russian Contemporary Geopolitical Perspectives." See "Stenogramma raboty uchreditel'nogo s'ezda Obshcherossiiskogo Politicheskogo Obshchestvennogo Dvizheniya 'Evraziya,' 21 aprelya 2001," at http://eurasia.com.ru:8101/syezd.htm. While there, he strengthened ties with leading figures of the European New Right, such as Frenchman Alain de Benoist and Belgian Jean-Francois Thiriart. Through geopolitics we attempt to analyze and predict the actions and decisions of nations, or other forms of political power, by means of their geographical characteristics and location in the world. In his introduction to the volume, Dugin wrote that Trubetskoi "can be termed the Eurasian Marx." 11, In 1991-1992, Prokhanov and Dugin attempted to form an alliance between certain leaders of the European New Right and several department heads and professors at the Academy of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces. Under, Vladimir Putin, the newspaper continued, Dugin had become "one of the drafters of the concept of national security." These leaders include Aslambek Aslakhanov, Ramazan Abdulatipov, Chingiz Aitmatov, Olzhas Suleimenov, Stanislav Derev, and Mufti Akhmad Kadyrov. He speculates that a "united Osetiya" also might be incorporated into Eurasia-Russia (351). 36 On May 31, 2001, the Russian Ministry of Justice officially registered the "Eurasia" movement, which was reported to have branches in fifty regions of Russia. Here and subsequently, the page numbers given in parentheses refer to the 1997 edition of Dugin's book. All of this comprises Eurasian strategic space broadly understood." The new organization appears to have been more influenced by German than by Russian national Bolshevism. Dugin notes that another important ally of Eurasia-Russia will be India, which, like Japan, will be invited to join Russia in efforts to contain and perhaps dismember China. A dark secret spans several... ENGLISH TRANSLATION The book is a Russian textbook on geopolitics. Expelled from the shores of Eurasia, the United States would then be required to "limit its influence to the Americas" (367). 17. As for the financial support of "Eurasia," the newspaper wrote: "The financial support of the movement comes through regional organizations of the special services. The first time a Russian geopolitical doctrine. In Russia, by contrast, Ikhlov continued: [O]ur new chief stratum are incapable of ruling under such a democracy.... [T]hey stand in need of an attractive foundation for another, non-democratic model. If you can improve it, please do. Refresh and try again. See Marina Latysheva, Issledovateli temnykh sil iz dvizheniya 'Evraziya' sdelali dlya prezidenta analaticheskii tsentr i gotovy zamenit' MID. Shenfield, 198.14. To induce the Anaconda to release its grip on the coastline of Eurasia, it must be attacked relentlessly on its home territory, within its own hemisphere, and throughout Eurasia. 11. Dugin's militant views on geopolitics, as expressed in his 1997 "textbook," presumably will strike Western readers as both crude and mad, representing a slight improvement over the ravings of Duma deputy speaker Vladimir Zhirinovskii. The Fathers-founders of Geopolitics His recommendations were aimed at ensuring Russia's supremacy over other geopolitical powers, especially the US, by establishing a ‘Eurasianism’ that counters both the EU and America. It is necessary, therefore to create "the [subsidiary] axis Moscow-Erevan-Teheran" (352). Let us know what’s wrong with this preview of. It is the russian strife for survival and beyond. "should be seen as a part of Russia" (377). 49. Whereas in his 1993 book, Konspiralogiya, Dugin had criticized the secret police for perceived "Atlanticist," that is, pro-American and pro-British sympathies, he now toasted the KGB (the initials he preferred to FSB) as "a new caste, a new social stratum" called upon both to hold the line against "American hegemony" and to "recreate a mighty Eurasian sovereign state" which would include all of the CIS republics. Strana.ru, June 4, 2001. Curtis marked it as to-read Dec 13, He also noted Dugin’s key role in forwarding the ideologies of Eurasianism and National Geoplitics. Aleksandr Dugin, Konspiratologiya (Moscow: Arktogeya, 1993), 115. It is this concept that identifies Dugin unequivocally as a fascist." FOUNDATIONS . Thorn, 67-68.16. For Dugin's take on the events of September 11, see his "LastochkiApokalipsa," http://arctogaia.com/public/lastochki.html, September 12, 2001. 4. In advocating this path, Dugin appears to be influenced by the writings of the European New Right, which from the 1970s on, argued for "the strict neutrality of Europe and its departure from NATO" (139). 50. The new states that have come into existence in the space of the former Soviet Union also do not, with the sole exception of Armenia, possess any markings of authentic statehood (187). Chapter 2. Some time in late 1999, Dugin founded "The Center for Geopolitical Expertise" in Moscow. The article takes a deeper look at developments leading up to the UAE's decision, followed by (He is said to have mastered at least nine of them.) 30. 29. Petr Suslov, also a former Vympel member and a retired colonel in the SVRY, played an even more noteworthy role at the congress. "Beginning in the 1950s," Francoise Thorn remarked, "Soviet strategists like General Shtemenko and Admiral Gorshkov were inspired by Eurasianist thinking." Nevertheless, some of his ideas seem to have clearly been resonating with folks in the Kremlin as el. Geopolitics is focused on the relationship between politics and territory. In an article in Zavtra, he speculated that this new center might shortly become "an analytical instrument of the Eurasian Platform for, simultaneously, the Presidential Administration, the Government of the Russian Federation, the Council of Federation, and the State Duma." Uncaptive Minds 7, no. Grigorii Osterman "Esli vakhkhabizm ne sdaetsya, ego ipravlyayut," June 28, 2001, SMI.ru,. And he adds that, "[T]he independent existence of Ukraine (especially within its present borders) can make sense only as a 'sanitary cordon'" (379). Pavlovskii, the creator of several influential pro-Kremlin Web sites, agreed. Transkaspiiskii proekt: informat-siono-. 38, By summer 2001, Aleksandr Dugin, a neo-fascist ideologue, had managed to approach the center of power in Moscow, having formed close ties with elements in the presidential administration, the secret services, the Russian military, and the leadership of the state Duma. 21. Beginning in 1989, it became clear that no-one in the Soviet leadership was capable of explaining the logic of traditional [Soviet] foreign policy and, as a result, there took place the fast destruction of Eurasia. On July 26, 2001, the EPR, with branches in seventy regions of Russia, was registered by the Russian Ministry of Justice. Eurasia needs a united, friendly Europe" (369). This translation is awful. An indispensable guide for all those who make decisions in the most important spheres of. 2 (1994): 76. Not gonna lie, he kinda had me in the first half... it was an overview of the background of "geopolitics" like you would expect a textbook to be. Dugin implies that what remains of this Orthodox Christian country after Russia absorbs Abkhaziya and South Osetiya might be turned over to Iran as booty, appropriate punishment, presumably, for its prickly independent course toward Russia in the post-communist period. See 2 questions about Foundations of Geopolitics…, Readers' Most Anticipated Books of January. This book if anything, gives you a perfect understanding of euroasianism. Moving eastward, Dugin proposes offering Germany de facto political dominance over most Protestant and Catholic states located within Central and Eastern Europe. Vladimir Putin, "Rossiya vsegda oshchushchala sebya evroaziatskoi stranoi," Strana.ru, November 13, 2000. 40. 41. 27, In August 2000, after reading an article by "one of the chief ideologists of the [Putin] Kremlin," Gleb Pavlovskii, Dugin wrote Pavlovskii suggesting a meeting. 28. 37 In late June 2001, "Eurasia" hosted an ambitious conference, provocatively titled "Islamic Threat or a Threat to Islam?" It should be noted that Dugin does not focus primarily on military means as a way of achieving Russian dominance over Eurasia; rather, he advocates a fairly sophisticated program of subversion, destabilization, and disinformation spearheaded by the Russian special services, supported by a tough, hard-headed use of Russia's gas, oil, and natural resource riches to pressure and bully other countries into bending to Russia's will. 2 The impact of this intended "Eurasianist" textbook on key elements among Russian elites testifies to the worrisome rise of fascist ideas and sentiments during the late Yeltsin and Putin periods. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995), 169-177. This page is not a forum for general discussion about Foundations of Geopolitics. Chapter five of Parker's book is devoted to "German Geopolitik.". 40. In a section titled "The Fall of China," Dugin directly warns: "China is the most dangerous geopolitical neighbor of Russia to the South" (359). See Novye izvestiiya (June 30, 2001 and July 27, 2001); Nezavisimaya gazeta (June 8, 2001 and July 31, 2001); SMI.ru (June 19, 2001); Moskovskii komsomolets (August 3, 2001); and NG-religii (August 8, 2001). The northern regions of Finland, Dugin adds, should be excised and donated to Murmansk oblast'. During the same congress, the aforementioned General Klokotov-- now a professor emeritus but one who continued to teach at the academy--noted that the theory of geopolitics had been taught as a subject at the General Staff Academy since the early 1990s and that in the future it would "serve as a mighty ideological foundation for preparing a new [military] command." This slogan encapsulates one of Dugin's most cherished beliefs. It should be noted that on June 19, 2001, a rival organization of "Eurasians," headed by state Duma deputy Abdul- Vakhed Niyazov, held a founding congress for a new Eurasian Party of Russia (EPR). Euras[ianism] brings an ideological foundation for post-Soviet imperialism." The Foundations of Geopolitics sold out in four editions, and continues to be assigned as a textbook at the General Staff Academy and other military universities in Russia. In that same year, he published his Foundations of Geopolitics, one of the more influential works of the post- communist period. Sharpe, 2001), 190-220. Aleksandr Verkhovskii and Vladimir Pribylovskii, Natsional-patrioticheskie organizatsii v Rossii (Moscow: Izdatel'stvo 'Institut eksperimental' noi sotsiologii,' 1996), 50. 19. As a consequence of this Grand Alliance, Eurasia-Russia should be prepared to divide up the imperial spoils with "the Islamic Empire in the South" (239). See "Stenogramma raboty uchreditel'nogo s'ezda Obshcherossiiskogo Politicheskogo Obshchestvennogo Dvizheniya 'Evraziya,' 21 aprelya 2001," at. Colonel General Leonid Ivashov, head of the International Department of the Russian Ministry of Defense, also may have served as an adviser. Although Dugin's ideas and prescriptions are indeed extreme, dangerous, and repellent, it should be emphasized that they are very much in the tradition of the writings of interwar fascists and adherents of the European Nouvelle Droite. Few books published in Russia during the post-communist period have exerted such an influence on Russian military, police, and foreign policy elites as Aleksandr Dugin’s 1997 neo-fascist treatise Osnovy geopolitiki: Geopoliticheskoe budushchee Rossii (Foundations of Geopolitics… Charles Clover, "Will the Russian bear roar again?" Aleksandr Dugin and the head of Kremlin politico-technology enjoy good, friendly relations." 33 "Dugin is already being perceived," the weekly Obshchaya gazeta observed, "not as the preacher of an ideological sect but as an officially recognized specialist on geopolitical questions." This an online English version of Foundations of Geopolitics (Основы геополитики / Osnovy Geopolitiki), by author Aleksandr Gelyevich Dugin. Like the United States, the People's Republic of China is seen as constituting an enormous danger for Eurasia-Russia. Almost the same holds true with regard to other regions of the Caucasus--Chechnya, Abkhaziya, Dagestan, etc." 48 As a result of such unrelenting destabilization efforts, the United States and its close ally Britain eventually will be forced to leave the shores of Eurasia (and Africa). Eurasia-Russia and the Empire of Iran, he emphasizes, will have "one and the same geopolitical tendency" (242). If you would want to know What Would Hitler Do? Alexander Dugin, The Foundations of Geopolitics: The Geopolitical Future of Russia (Moscow: Arktogeia, 2000) Table of Contents: Foreword Book I: The Foundations of Geopolitics Introduction Chapter 1: The Definition of Geopolitics Chapter 2: Tellurocracy and Thalassocracy Chapter 3: Geopolitical Teleology Chapter 4: Rimland and “Border Zones” Chapter 5: Geopolitics as Fate PART I: … In similar fashion, a "certain secret department of the GRU" and other voices had been advocating a "Eurasian" course for the USSR, but their advice went unheeded (103). "A repudiation of the empire-building function," Dugin warns sternly, "would signify the end of the Russian people as a historical reality, as a civilizational phenomenon. , racially uniform state '' ( 377 ). Dugin believes the themselves... Some time in late 1999, Dugin 's influence should not be exaggerated, it should. 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